Thursday, August 27, 2020

Pharmacy Application Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Drug store Application - Essay Example It made me wish that I could accomplish something for the individuals I abandoned in Vietnam or if nothing else plan something for respect their memory. Some time in 2010, I concluded that so as to rest easy thinking about my favorable luck, of having gone to the place where there is bounty, I expected to offer back to the network in memory of those evil individuals I left in Vietnam. My quest for pertinent low maintenance work drove me to the Oak Park Regional Medical Center. For over a year, I accomplished right hand work in the Critical Care Unit Dentistry Department where part of my obligations included helping the dental specialists with desk work, disinfecting their apparatuses, filling water pitchers, wiping out racks and restocking supplies. While I was working there, I started to see that the patients who were being dealt with additionally had indistinguishable protests from the ones in Vietnam, the drugs were excessively costly. Be that as it may, some way or another they figured out how to manage the cost of it. I thought about whether this case was the equivalent wherever in America. At that point in 2012, I wound up satisfying my fantasy about regarding the memory of my kinsmen by chipping in at the Shawnee Medical Mission Center. This was the first occasion when that I was presented to the universe of Pharmacy. Here I was entrusted to do my part at the In-Patient Pharmacy. My obligations here were a higher priority than those that I did at the clinical focus. I was by and by responsible for checking and evacuating obsolete drugs structure the flexibly retires, just as naming prescriptions. I sensed that I was in my component as I carried out my responsibility there. It felt like the ideal fit for me. So I started to think about a vocation in Pharmacy. While I was thinking about this thought, I discovered that my relative in Vietnam had built up a degenerative nerve infection and she was unable to manage the cost of her prescription which just expense $.50 Vietnam pennies. She kicked the bucket not long after her analysis since they couldn't stand to medication. This was the impetus that I was searching for. My family members passing pushed me to select

Saturday, August 22, 2020

American Revolution Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

American Revolution - Research Paper Example Rousseau and Montesquieu successfully advanced republicanism, liberal idea, law based standards and strict resistance and along these lines, filled in as a significant forerunner to the American Revolution (Ray, 24). Notwithstanding huge political reason for the American Revolution, financial relations framed inside American Colonies were further developed than those in Britain, in this manner further heightening the development towards autonomy. Political development towards American autonomy began with the main Continental Congress, happened in 1774 at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Essentially, it spoke to a show of representatives from twelve American settlements yet the Province of Georgia. The First Continental Congress settled on two significant political choices with first being blacklist declaration of British merchandise and the second - declaration of Second Continental Congress (Schecter, 39). During the last mentioned, the United States Declaration of Independence has been proclaimed, a significant political advance to the power of a youthful state. Moreover, this political activity set off the confirmation of the Articles of Confederation, which happened following a time of political conversations. During the American Revolution, political advancement has been persistently went with military activity, happening on the North America domain as well as globally (Higginbotham, 19). English military battle built up against the Revolutionaries has been generally amassed in Massachusetts. As indicated by recorded feeling, the clashes of Lexington and Concord are viewed as the official start of the American Revolutionary War (Higginbotham, 22). The supposed Boston crusade brought about two eminent occasions: probably the bloodiest skirmish of the war - the Battle of Bunker Hill (1775) and unification of pilgrim local army into rational customary armed force by George Washington. From the basic point of view, the early British military methodology in the North American has been perceived as inadequate due to some degree to the Secretary of State for Colonies Lord George Germain's uncouth administration. The absence of compelling coordination for the all out war exertion permitted the two primary British militaries in North America - General Howe in New York and General John Burgoyne in Canada - to act nearly as free powers, instead of a synchronized group (Black, 117-121). In 1777, Burgoyne endeavored to cut off New England from the center states by driving south along the Richelieu River, through Lake Champlain, and down the Hudson River (Banes and Charles Royster, 94-99). To oppose Burgoyne's development, George Washington with recently shaped Continental Army surged fortifications north to Philip Schuyler and Horatio Gates, while keeping his outstanding power in New Jersey where he could shield

Friday, August 21, 2020

The Perks of Being a Humanities Major

The Perks of Being a Humanities Major Read Read Read Read Read Read Write Such is the life of a HASS major. There are readings with short names, like “Racisms,” and readings with incomprehensible names, like “Intersectionality and the Ethics of Transnational Surrogacy.” There are readings on the history of education methods and policies that make me both happy and sad. For every excellent teacher and idea, there is a way to fail. There are readings that illuminate everyday subjects in an entirely new light. The question then is, “Why didn’t I think of it that way before?” Sometimes it’s also, “Did I ever need to?” This semester, I am taking two philosophy classes, though entirely by chance. I’m certainly not a Philosophy (Course 24) major, but so far the experience has strained my brain in wonderfully new ways. Or old ones, considering that the readings activate primarily my math-proof neurons. I had not previously encountered texts that I could not decipher. Now I may not fully comprehend a large portion of an assignment. Professors who interpret it later in class amaze me. My favorite readings are those that resemble mathematical proofs or provide “scientific” evidence. The proofs employ the same mechanisms that mathematicians use. Except the proofs are about, say, the non-existence of “races.” All kinds of logic methods can transform social ideas into precise concepts that can be discussed, disproven, or altered. Then to be discussed, disproven, or altered by another philosopher, who quotes his predecessors extensively, mostly to disagree. Many sentences begin with “I will argue” or “I will examine.” Quite different from math class, where we were taught not to use the personal pronoun “I” in proofs. After hours of absorbing the style of featured authors, I begin to repeat their words or divide my experiences into distinct categories. Quoting articles about intersectionality does not make me the life of the party. One other class I’m taking is about Economics, a subject which I’m clueless about beyond the popular narratives of public figures. The class is 17.309 Science, Technology, and Public Policy, arguably the most useful Political Science class offered at a tech school. We’ll have guest lectures by MIT speakers who have influenced the class topics in profound ways. I enjoy my assignments, though their format is shocking after a year at MIT. It’s odd not to pset here. Nor have weekly deadlines. Instead, every day, I have new readings on new subjects. “Essay season” replaces “midterm season.” Instead of a weekly/monthly spike in deadlines, I get a continuous flow of work. The con of such a lifestyle at MIT is loneliness. I am the only humanities major on my floor, and the only sophomore in my department. I don’t take classes alongside similarly involved people, and thus don’t often get to challenge my thoughts and misconceptions. For most students, the humanities courses are secondary to their technical requirements. I had to scour the course catalog multiple times to select my five classes. And I can’t imagine what will happen to my schedule next year, when I will have exhausted all relevant choices. MIT doesn’t offer many options for its purely HASS majors, and cross-registration is limited to 24 units (~ two classes). I can’t utter common phrases like, “I’m taking 3-4 technicals and a HASS.” I’m taking four HASSes and no technicals. I don’t discuss my classes in terms of numbers, and have to instead pronounce lengthy names (try “Science, Technology, and Public Policy”). I don’t get to turn in psets or participate in pset parties or do other pset-related activities. But there are pros to being a HASS major at MIT as well (and there are quite surprisingly 19 different HASS majors!). I enjoy my work and can still engage in conversations with my friends about the topics covered, albeit informally. My HASSes are “technical” and engaging for the brain. Most of them are offered by several departments, and so I get a variety of perspectives. I also get the resources of a small department. Poli Sci has 30-ish faculty members for 10-ish students. The picture of every undergrad goes on the departmental wall. All of us can fit into one room for weekly socials. We have 24/7 access to a tiny kitchen with a coffee machine and a fancy tea selection. I have priority to get into the oversubscribed Course 17  (Political Science) offerings. I get surprised looks from people when I tell them my major. Admittedly, it does feel a bit special. So there’s that for now. The summary of three Course 17 weeks. I will write more about my classes and activities when those get settled. For now, the MIT world is still awhirl with all kinds of fairs: for global opportunities, sophomore experiences, and careers. Student organizations hold open houses to lure new members with food and performances. We are still only getting a taste of academics, though midterm/essay season is slowly creeping close. Tomorrow, I will submit my first essay draft (which I haven’t started in lieu of this post). The freshmen will have their first 8.01 exam, my ever-favorite midterm experience. The leftover rollercoaster timber has been completely swept away from the East Campus courtyard by students eager to build new things. The careless waste of time from Orientation days is no longer possible. Once again laundry is becoming an ordeal. Life is back on the MIT track. Post Tagged #Course 17 - Political Science #Course 24-1 - Philosophy

Monday, May 25, 2020

What Christian Literature Is Essay - 4677 Words

What Christian Literature Is Lewis here writes about Christianity and literature, specifically what is Christian literature and how does it differ with secular literature. He read this paper to a religious society at Oxford fairly early in his Christian walk. The question he seems to be answering is, What is Christian literature? His main argument is that the rules for good literature are the same for both Christian and non-Christian. He writes, The rules for writing a good passion play or a good devotional lyric are simply the rules for writing tragedy or lyric in general; He goes on to use a typical Lewisian styly argument by discussing a Christian cook book, Boiling an egg is the same process whether you are a Christian or a†¦show more content†¦Or is the other way around? The cultural minded person is less able to come to Christ and he must lay down all of his cultural understanding to come to Christ? The argument he is putting forward goes something like this, culture is a reflection of Christian values. These values are not explicitly the same as Christian virtues, they are shadows or remembrances of the real thing. The illustrations he uses are very good. He says, They resemble the regenerate life only as affection resembles charity, or honour resembles virtue, or the moon the sun. But though the like is not the same, it is better than unlike. In this sense culture can be an instrument of salvation for some, though not all. This will also give a good reason for the pursuit of a better cultural understanding, through the understanding of culture we better understand how the biblical truths become relevant in society. His argument seems to me to be sound. He is addressing people who are interested in theology and he is making a strong theological argument. As far as problems or weaknesses in it I would say I wished he held to the total depravity of man because from my own perspective I dont see that as a contradiction to what he is saying. We from a reformed perspective do believe that man still shows forth in some degree the Glory of God. This doesnt mean the same thing as total depravityShow MoreRelatedSupernatural, Supernatural And Supernatural1327 Words   |  6 Pagesthey read and analyze literature, there is a multitude of ways that the supernatural can be interpreted. A reader should consider what is supernatural about a certain situation in the text. Are there faeries, witches, wizards and ghosts? What about spells, dragons or angels and devils? By observation, the supernatural or magical senses usually involve a character with certain power, usually the main character or hero of the stor y. What are the motives of these characters and what are they doing thatRead MoreThe Lewis s Place As A Twentieth Century Writer1286 Words   |  6 PagesC.S Lewis’s Place as a Twentieth-Century Writer During the 100 years between the year 1901 and the year 2000 C.S Lewis was not only able to inspire the Christians of his time, but he was able to cause social change by addressing the issues of his time through literature. As seen in many of his works, such as The Abolition of Man, The Problem of Pain, and, The Chronicles of Narnia, Lewis used to the influence he had over his readers to advocate for the important problems with society during the 20thRead MoreThe Influential Book of the Bible886 Words   |  4 Pagesearth shall be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the Lord. To many people this statement depicts a picture of what it will be like when Christ comes back to the world, to others its merely a prophecy to when Jesus came in the New Testament. What is so miraculous though is that we, as humans, have had the knowledge of God with us through generations. Even non-Christians who never read the Holy Word gain some knowledge of the glory of the Lord without even realizi ng it; and that is throughRead MoreSuperb Motivation. Literature Possesses The Capability1749 Words   |  7 PagesSuperb Motivation Literature possesses the capability to vastly influence the world, and those who find a way to impact literature drive this powerful influence. Few people in the history of literature publicized as many thoughts and critical views as T.S. Eliot, and by disseminating his opinions throughout the literature world, Eliot found a way to communicate new perspectives and tastes in literature (Worthen). Born in the fall of 1888, T.S. Eliot grew up to become one of the most influentialRead MoreThe Impact Of Literature On Literature And The Social View Of Poetry1724 Words   |  7 Pages Literature possesses the capability to vastly influence the world, and those who find a way to impact literature drive the powerful influence. Few people in the history of literature publicized as many thoughts and critical views as T.S. Eliot, and by disseminating his opinions throughout the literature world, Eliot found a way to communicate new perspectives and tastes in literature (Worthen). Born in the f all of 1888, T.S. Eliot grew up to become one of the most influential poets of all time,Read MoreEssay on Legacy of Rome and Christianity923 Words   |  4 Pagessecond part, when the empire began to fall after Constantines reign -- the vibrant Christian age. (Matthews, 174) After this last stage, both secular and Christian writers competed for the attention of educated Romans. Christian writers deemed Rome worth saving; they looked towards a new future and new hopes. Secular writers on the other hand, did not experiment with new styles and consequently, Christian literature dominated the era. Some of the best-known writers that explore religious writingsRead MoreThe Impact Of Literature On Literature And The Social View Of Poetry1391 Words   |  6 Pages Literature possess the capability to vastly influence the world, and those who find a way to impact literature drive the powerful influence. Few people in the history of literature publicized as many thoughts and critical views as T.S. Eliot, and by disseminating his opinions throughout the literature world, Eliot found a way to communicate new perspectives and tastes in literature (Worthen). Born in the fall of 1888, T.S. Eliot grew up to become one of the most influential poets of all time, asRead MoreThe Garden, The Apple And The Fall-982 Words   |  4 PagesThe Garden, The Apple and The Fall- The Retelling of The Fall of Man from Paradise in Western Literature Western literature, particularly that of a religious nature, is replete with references to paradise, a transcendental reality in which man exists in his ideal state. In the western canon, the Garden of Eden is ubiquitous with this paradise or heaven. What is the Garden of Eden? In what ways has man’s fall from paradise influenced the mindset and psyche of modern man? Like many tales inRead MoreAnalysis Of Mohsin Hamid s The Reluctant Fundamentalist890 Words   |  4 Pagesnostalgia proves to be Erica’s demise. This paper will assert that much like Erica, America suffered from its’ own nostalgia after the events on 9/11. Changing from a time of embraced multiculturalism, America longs to return to a simpler, more Christian time. At times this means isolating itself from the world as it clings to American exceptionalism. Its own isolation and nostalgia proves destructive to its beauty and light. Still, I will further argue that not just America’s nos talgia is problematicRead MoreBeowulf And The Germanic Heroic Code Of Values, Traditions, And Customs1522 Words   |  7 Pagesculture, and these cultural constructions are directly and indirectly acquired throughout the lifetime of the culture. A major part of culture is literature; the literature of the time reflects upon daily life and society during the time that the story was composed. Beowulf, an epic poem, is one of the most important and only works of Anglo-Saxon literature. Much like a fable, the epic poem of Beowulf had lessons that taught the people within this society how to behave. This essay will outline how the

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Relationship Between Nutrients And Mood - 1360 Words

Many studies have been conducted -- with interesting results -- showing the relationship between nutrients and mood. Research shows it is clear that no one single nutrient (with the exception of lithium) can provide a reliably effective treatment for mood disorders. Rather, the evidence implies that a broad range of nutrients are involved in achieving optimum mental stability: †¢ Clinical Trials Clinical Trial Table 1: Micronutrient-mood case studies and case series (PDF) Clinical Trial Table 2: Micronutrient-mood randomized controlled trials (PDF) †¢ Mechanism Of Nutrient Action Various micronutrient-related factors are associated with increased risk of psychiatric illness, and micronutrients play essential roles in an array of brain†¦show more content†¦Gastrointestinal tract disruptions and psychiatric disorders show remarkably high co-morbidity.29 For example, most studies that have investigated the co-morbidity of irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disorders show prevalence of psychiatric disorders in irritable bowel syndrome patients to be 90% or greater. 30 Higher, genetically-based micronutrient requirements Research is uncovering major genetic risk factors in psychiatric illness.31 Up to one-third of gene mutations result in decreased enzyme binding affinity for corresponding coenzymes, including vitamins and minerals.32 As a result, individuals with certain genotypes may have significantly higher requirements for essential micronutrients in key mood-related brain pathways. 32 33 44 Low micronutrient intake exacerbates the problem Low micronutrient intake may contribute to psychiatric illness.34 35 36 Intake of many micronutrients is inadequate in the United States, as shown in Figure 2. RDA levels are deemed to be â€Å"sufficient to meet the dietary requirements of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) of healthy individuals†, but do not ensure mental health for at-risk sub-populations:13 â€Å"intake at the level of the RDA or AI would not necessarily be expected to replete individuals previously undernourished, nor would it be adequate for disease states marked by increased requirements.† 37 †¢

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Sexual Harassment And The Equal Employment Opportunity...

Sexual harassment is any unwanted or unwelcomed attention whether it is by touching or talking in a way he/she doesn’t like. â€Å"Approximately 15,000 sexual harassment cases are brought to the equal employment opportunity commission (EEOC) each year.† These numbers reflect where people speak up wanting justice for their case. All over the world, not just America, this is a major problem for women and some men but mainly women. In October of this year, I started my new job as a hostess at a seafood restaurant. It was my first week on the job. One of the duties as a hostess is to answer the phone, answer customer questions, make to go orders, and reservations. I was extremely nervous to answer the phone because I was scared of being asked question I didn’t know the answer to. The girl I was working with said â€Å"You need to get use to answering the phone -- just in case you are here by yourself†. So, I answered the phone. It was a man who acted like he knew me. I asked if there was anything I could help him with and the call just took a turn for the worse. It turned very inappropriate, very fast and I immediately hung up the phone. My manager said it was probably an older man who noticed me at the bar, which was an unsettling feeling knowing that this type of situation could happen to me again or any of the females that worked there especially the female bartenders. The bartenders I work with are strictly there to do their job and to provide for their family. One isShow MoreRelatedSexual Harassment Essay1170 Words   |  5 PagesSexual harassment is so ordinary in the workforce that frequently we fail to even recognize harassing behavior as immoral. This is because so many of us--women and men alike--have become desensitized to offensive behaviors. Sexual harassment in any form is unacceptable behavior and should not be tolerated by anyone. It undermines our ability to study, to work, and to feel like effective, empowered people in the world. The U.S Equal Employment Opportunity Commission describes sexual harassment asRead MoreA Look Into Sexual Harassment1231 Words   |  5 PagesA Look into Sexual Harassment A Look into Sexual Harassment Sexual Harassment is a form of sex discrimination which is a violation of Title VII of the Civil Right Act of 1964. Sexual Harassment cases come in two different forms, quid pro quo and atmosphere of harassment (hostile work environment). Here we will look at some facts and examples, statistics, and one cases involving sexual harassment. First we start with the facts. Quid pro quo means something for something, and a hostileRead MoreThe Equal Employment Opportunity Commission1454 Words   |  6 Pages THE EQUAL EMPLOYMENT 2 This paper is intended to shed light to the author on a Federal government website in lieu to its usefulness in human resource management. In this paper, the Federal government website of choice which will be critically analyzed is the The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) website. Some of the areas of interest in this report are the specific commercial, trade, legislative, regulatory or statistical information in the Equal Employment OpportunityRead MoreAnalysis Of Ohio Bath Solutions, Llc Essay1438 Words   |  6 Pagesbased on those people’s membership in a protected class† (p. 81). Acts of illegal discrimination can include excluding candidates from employment or promotion decisions, or paying them less based on their membership in a protected class. Organizations that are found guilty of discrimination can be sued by the victim or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), or both. However, there are ways that an organization can mitigate or prevent discrimination in the workplace. Creating policiesRead MoreSexual Harassment And The Civil Rights Act Of 19641706 Words   |  7 PagesWhat is sexual harassment? The Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network defines sexual harassment as, â€Å"unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature in which submission to or rejection of such conduct explicitly or implicitly affects a n individual s work or school performance or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work or school environment† (Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network, 2009). In the United States Sexual harassmentRead MoreCase Analysis: Role of the EEOC1774 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿Equal Employment Introduction Lauren Goldston, an employee at Sangrias Mexican Cafà ©, a restaurant in Tucker, Georgia complained of being sexually harassed by a male cook at the restaurant. The cook engaged in unwelcome sexual advances, remarks, and inappropriate touching. Goldston reported the conduct to the restaurants owner. Goldstons mother, Sara, aunt Francesca, and uncle, Max, all worked at the restaurant as well. They also reported the sexual harassment on numerous occasions. InsteadRead MoreLegal Case Study On Legal Cases Essay858 Words   |  4 Pages The two legal cases I studied involved sexual harassment. Both cases were similar, in that each involved multiple people and the plaintiffs were terminated in retaliation for reporting the alleged violations. In the first case, three female employees reported claims of sexual harassment against a warehouse supervisor with New Breed Logistics. The three stated they were subjected to lewd, obscene and vulgar sexual remarks, as well as, unwelcome sexual touching. Additionally, a male employeeRead MorePreventing Sexual Harassment At The Workplace978 Words   |  4 PagesPreventing Sexual Harassment in the Workplace An anti-harassment policy should be set and published to every company by the employer; moreover, this policy should state and allow the employees to complain if the harassment and discrimination occur. However, employers are likely to be negligent about the important of investigating complaints of sexual harassment and appropriate solutions. (Tremblay, 2008) The most effective weapon against sexual harassment is prevention. It is impossibleRead MoreEssay on Sexual Harassment1046 Words   |  5 Pagesvictim of sexual pressure. These instances can take place at work, school, the military and even at church. But exactly what is sexual exploitation or unwanted sexual behavior? After looking at several definitions for sexual abuse I came across the following definition that I feel will help all of us to better understand what inappropriate sexual behavior is. Sexual harassment was defined by The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) as unwelcome advances and requ ests for sexual behaviorRead MoreEmployment Law Compliance Plan1439 Words   |  6 PagesEmployment Law Compliance Plan Donna Allaire HRM/531 July 8, 2013 Professor James Scholes MEMORANDUM TO: Traci Goldman FROM: DATE: Subject: Employment Laws Regarding your request, I am to formulate an employment law compliance plan for a Mr. Bradley Stonefield. It is my understanding that Mr. Stonefield is planning to open a limousine service in Austin, Texas. The limousine service will be made up of 25 employees within the first year. This memo will examine employment laws as

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Rationing Healthcare free essay sample

Facts such as these lead most experts and scholars such as Peter Singer, bioethics professor at Princeton University, to believe rationing of healthcare is not only necessary but highly desired for all stakeholders involved. The fact of the matter is that healthcare is a scarce resource, and like all scarce resources, it requires close management and rationing to ensure its best use. At present, healthcare in a sense, is rationed through price. In the realm of public opinion however, rationing healthcare is often times connected to the highly politicized word, ‘socialism’ and is highly undesired. In its truest form however, rationing simply put, is a way of distributing limited resources to garner the best overall â€Å"bang for the buck. † In healthcare, rationing is a manner of which providing the best quality of care to the largest number of patients. Investopedia defines rationing as: The artificial restriction of raw materials, goods or services. Rationing commonly occurs when governments fear a shortage and want to make sure people have access to necessities, such as after a natural disaster or during a war. Governments can also impose rationing in the face of failed policies such as central planning, or may be forced to use rationing as a result of shortages (Definition of ’Rationing’, 2013, p. 1). This paper’s purpose is to examine the rationale behind the rationing of healthcare. It will examine the affect it has on healthcare delivery, impact on healthcare providers and consumers, possible solutions, and the role healthcare administrators/managers play in the process. The paper will reference institutions such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and other national healthcare systems like Great Britain, Australia, and Canada. In addition, a definition of quality-adjusted life-year will be presented and debated as a possible option to ration care fair and proportionately. Affect Rationing Has on Healthcare Delivery. Challenger’s arguement. Sally C. Pipes, Chief Executive officer of Pacific Research Institute and adversary to the rationing of healthcare, wrote an article titled â€Å"Obama Will Ration Your Healthcare. Within the article, many subjects are discussed, including the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), a rationing system that controls government costs. It is Pipes’ belief that rationing healthcare will result in the elderly population being discriminated against due to cost benefit analysis. Her article goes on further to state, â€Å"the process of determining whi ch drugs and which treatments would be approved for use would be quickly politicized† (Pipes, 2008, para. 9). There is strong argument that rationing healthcare would ultimately fail in the hands of public opinion. To make this point, Pipes references lessons learned in managed care during the 1990’s. The goal of cost containment was successful however rejected by US citizens resulting in Congress passing a patient’s Bill of Rights (Pipes, 2008, para. 8). Other advocates against healthcare rationing state similar responses to Sally Pipes. Claire Andre and Manuel Velasquez, members of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, go as far as quoting Euripedes, 500 B. C. I hate the men who would prolong their lives by foods and drinks and charms of magic art perverting natures course to keep off death. They ought, when they no longer serve the land to quit this life, and clear the way for youth. It is their firm belief that through rationing, healthcare would result in the elderly and disabled populations being limited in their care because of a measure called a quality-adjusted life- year (QALY). QALY is a unit designed to enable a comparison of the benefits achieved by different forms of health care (Singer, 2009, para. 22). Andre and Velasquez state the morals of such rationing would be unjust and take away constitutional rights to receive equal care. Proponent’s arguement. Many proponents for rationing healthcare resources feel it is only a matter of time before it becomes necessary. Healthcare analysts and providers predict a health care crisis because of: * Costs of Healthcare * Increased number of uninsured individuals * Unknown status of current healthcare system Factors that are affecting these conclusions consist of: * Expenses are rising faster than the cost of living. Medicare and Medicaid spending (which comprises 26 percent of the federal budget) is expanding faster than the economic growth rate * Individuals and their families continue to pay a significant amount out of pocket (Ukleja Center for Ethical Leadership, 2012, Slide 3) While these factors are compelling, the numbers representing US spending costs ultimately lend credence to the argument for healthcare rationing. In June of 2011, the National Coalition on Health Care reported healthcare spending reached 18. 2% of US Gross Domestic Product (GDP), up by 5. % from the prior year (The National Coalition on Health Care, 2011, p. 1). With a continued climb in spending, insolvency of the current healthcare system could occur as early as eight years. President Obama has plainly stated â€Å"that America’s health care system is broken† (Singer, 2009, para. 5). Proponents for the rationing of healthcare are in agreement with the President and see little to no alternative. While some feel rationing is the way to avoid bankrupting the healthcare system others believe the wrong form of rationing is already occurring in the form of ability to pay. Examples of such rationing comes in the form of pharmaceutical deductibles for life saving medication. If the individual is unable to afford the medication they go without. Professionals like Simon Rottenberg, Professor of Economics at the University of Massachusetts, and David J. Theroux, President and Chief Executive Officer of The Independent Institute and Publisher of The Independent Review, warn against this form of rationing and instead, believe it should be based on a measurement of life quality. They state: There is a strong emotional attraction for price controls as a way for the government to â€Å"do something. † However, well-intentioned motives are not enough—the results also count and whether the consequences from government action are beneficial to the public, especially the disadvantaged, or not (Rottenberg amp; Theroux, 1994, p. 1). Examples of where well-intentioned government motives failed in their attempts to ration health care based on price can be found in Germany and Japan. Due to the belt tightening based price rationing both countries experienced shortages of medications, reduced funding for research, and black market criminal activity, along with dissatisfied patients (Rottenberg amp; Theroux, 1994, p. 2). Although there is a valid argument for rationed care, determination of what factor should be used to determine who gets what care is still up for debate. Under the solutions category of this paper quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) will be further defined and labeled as the best way to ration care. A method for calculating QALY will be explained and its validity defended. Current Impact on Healthcare Consumers and Institutions. Health care organizations around the world all rely on some form of rationing of care due to limited resources. Ultimately rationing limits access to healthcare. In the case of the United States, this is done through health coverage both government and private. Creating a universal coverage system will require a rationing system that is both ethical and cost effective. Its impacts can only be examined in theory based on review and comparing of the US to that of other countries’ such as Canada and Great Britain. Review of healthcare rationing in the United States. When comparing the United States’ current healthcare coverage system to those of other countries, the country does not measure up. Under the current system, health care costs in the US result in absorption of approximately one in six dollars of national spending (Singer, 2009). A poor economy along with increased healthcare costs have reduced the number of those with healthcare coverage. In 2012 the estimates indicate approximately 44. 6% of US citizens have health care coverage, a decline of 1. % from the prior year (Young, 2013). At present, the US spends 1. 5 times more than other countries around the world (Kane, 2012, para. 8) with 90% percent of Americans who believe the US healthcare system needs fundamental changes or a complete overhaul (Center for American Progress, 2007, p. 3). Great Britain. In Britain, all citizens have healthcare coverage, a sharp contrast to the United States. 76% of citizens in Great Britain approve of the current system (Singer, 2009) and 9. 6% of GDP is spent on their healthcare needs (Kane, 2012, table 2). The country uses the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as a resource for determining the rationing of health care services. NICE is an independent organization that provides national guidance and standards on the promotion of good health and the prevention and treatment of ill health (NHS Choices, 2011, para. 3). The organization focuses on: * Public health * Health technologies * Clinical practice * Quality standards * Quality and outcomes framework Canada. Possible Solution. QALY is an opportunity as a measurement for a unbiased approach to organizing healthcare under an umbrella of unified understanding. As a proponent to rationing of healthcare, QALY offers an approach that focuses on the best quality of life compared to that of life extensions. For example, an individual who is 3o years of age has a life expectancy of 70 years compared to that of someone who is 85 years of age who has exceeded their life expectancy. It is cost beneficial to provide life -saving medicine to the individual who is at 30 opposed to the one who are 85 because there is a greater bang for the buck. In essence QALY is a measurement that can help determine the best way to use resources and allocate funds toward the best overall outcome. Unfortunately this decision can result in death for those of less dire circumstances or for those that are less likely to result in successful outcomes. Until American citizens decide on the emphasis of cost vs. life the matter will remain unresolved. Until then, healthcare remains in a grey area where they attempt to balance the value of life with the costs that are associate with maintaining life. References Andre, C. amp; Velasquez, M. (2010). Aged-Based Health Care Rationing. Retrieved from http://www. scu. edu/ethics/publications/iie/v3n3/age. html Center for American Progress. (2007). Health Care by the Numbers: Ensure Affordable Coverage for All. Retrieved from http://www. americanprogress. org/issues/healthcare/news/2007/05/03/2962/health-care-by-the-numbers/ Definition of ’Rationing’. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. inves topedia. com/terms/r/rationing. asp#axzz2Lp5M2H7u Kane, J. (2012). Health Costs: How the U. S. Compares With Other Countries. Retrieved from http://www. pbs. rg/newshour/rundown/2012/10/health-costs-how-the-us-compares-with-other-countries. html NHS Choices. (2011). Health watchdogs and authorities . Retrieved from http://www. nhs. uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/healthregulators/Pages/nice. aspx Pipes, S. C. (2008). Obama Will Ration Your Health Care. Retrieved from http://online. wsj. com/article/SB123060332638041525. html Rottenberg, S. , amp; Theroux, D. J. (1994). Rationing Health Care: Price Controls Are Hazardous to Our Health . Retrieved from http://www. independent. org/publications/article. asp? id=1201 Singer, P. (2009). Why We Must Ration Health Care. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes. com/2009/07/19/magazine/19healthcare-t. html? pagewanted=allamp;_r=0 The National Coalition on Health Care. (2011). Health Care Spending as Percentage of GDP Reaches All-Time High. Retrieved from http://nchc. org/node/1171 Ukleja Center for Ethical Leadership. (2012). Rationing Health Care. Retrieved from www. csulb. edu/colleges/cba/ucel/modules/documents/rationing-health Young, J. (2013). Number of Uninsured in U. S. Rises as Workers Lose Jobs and Health Insurance. Retrieved from http://www. huffingtonpost. com/2012/02/14/number-of-uninsured-in-us_n_1276189. html